International homelessness reveals how Finland ended homelessness, and why Australia is failing


Prof O’Sullivan will make the keynote address at the Victorian Homelessness Conference on Wednesday 13 September, 10.30am

Visiting homelessness expert, Professor Eoin O’Sullivan, is warning Australian welfare chiefs and policy makers that throwing money at crisis responses to homelessness (such as refuges and emergency accommodation), whilst ignoring social housing, is a recipe for failure.

Professor O’Sullivan, Editor of the European Journal of Homelessness, will make a keynote address at the Victorian Homelessness Conference, hosted by the Council to Homeless Persons, comparing Ireland, Denmark and Finland, all of which set a target to end rough sleeping and chronic homelessness by 2016. Only Finland has succeeded, by building and buying permanent, rent-subsidised homes for thousands of rough sleepers and chronically homeless languishing in crisis accommodation – an approach called Housing First.
There are no rough sleepers in Finland, and the need for crisis accommodation has been almost eliminated, with just 52 shelter beds in the entire country, down from 600 in 2008.

The success was achieved through major government investment in social housing, meaning people can be quickly moved off the streets and out of crisis accommodation.
In contrast to Finland’s approach, Professor O’Sullivan will outline how Ireland’s homelessness response invested heavily in crisis responses, and relied on the private rental market to house low-income earners, without boosting social housing. As a result, Irish homeless shelters have ballooned and are bottle necked; today there are 1,959 shelter beds, compared to 617 in 2008, with people forced to live in shelters and other crisis accommodation due to a lack of exit points into social housing.

The Irish Government has all but stopped building new social housing, and consequently, homelessness has risen to epidemic levels in recent years, a strikingly similar experience to Australia.

There are striking parallels between the Irish and Australian homelessness crises. We’re both playing the role of the ambulance at the bottom of the cliff, instead of intervening at the top of the cliff to prevent people falling into homelessness,.

With our Federal Government brokering a new National Homelessness and Housing Agreement with the States, as a nation we need to commit to significant increases in social housing for low income earners so we can emulate the success from abroad, not continue with failure.

In both Ireland and Australia, demand for emergency accommodation is at an historic high as people on low incomes find themselves homeless due to skyrocketing rents, with inadequate public and community housing safety nets. We won’t end homelessness in Australia by building more crisis accommodation while neglecting social housing, and cannot rely on the private market to house our most vulnerable citizens.

“The take-out message is that to solve homelessness, we need enough housing for people on very low incomes. Until we have that, homelessness will continue to rise.
Having crisis beds for people that fall into homelessness is important, but the vital thing is to keep that stay as brief as possible by moving people quickly into permanent, affordable housing,

Ireland vs Victoria: A tale of two homelessness crises
They might be oceans apart, but the Republic of Ireland and Victoria have a lot in common. There are valuable
lessons to be learned from Ireland’s responses to homelessness.
In 2008, the Irish Government set a target to end chronic homelessness and rough sleeping by 2016. This plan
didn’t succeed. Like Victoria, many of Ireland’s homelessness interventions have been ultimately thwarted by a
lack of affordable housing.